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Pattern Day Trader

FINRA rules define a “pattern day trader” as any customer who executes four or more “day trades” within five business days, provided that the number of day trades represents more than six percent of…

PIPE Offerings

“PIPE” stands for “private investment in public equity.” In a PIPE offering, investors commit to purchase a certain number of …

Plan de ahorro de educación

Un tipo de plan 529 que permite al titular de una cuenta abrir una cuenta de inversión para ahorrar para los gastos de educación superior calificados del beneficiario de la cuenta o la matrícula para…

Planificación para la Jubilación con Seguro Social

La Administración del Seguro Social tiene herramientas interactivas para ayudarle a calcular qué beneficios de seguro social puede…

Ponzi Schemes

A Ponzi scheme is an investment fraud that pays existing investors with funds collected from new investors. Ponzi schemes are named after Charles Ponzi. In the 1920s, Ponzi promised investors a 50%…


The combined holdings of stock, bond, commodity, real estate and other investments by an individual or institutional investor.


The amount by which the price of a bond exceeds its principal (par) amount.

Prepaid Tuition Plans

A type of 529 plan that lets an account owner purchase units or credits at participating colleges or universities for future tuition for the account beneficiary.


The unscheduled partial or complete payment of the principal amount outstanding on a loan, such as a mortgage, before it is due.

Prepayment Risk

The risk that principal repayment will occur earlier than scheduled, forcing the investor to reinvest at lower prevailing rates.

Price-earnings (P/E) Ratio

A company's P/E ratio is a way of gauging whether the stock price is high or low compared to the past or to other companies. The ratio is calculated by dividing the current stock price by the…

Primary Market

Markets in which newly issued securities are sold to investors and the issuer receives the proceeds.

Prime Bank Investments

“Prime bank” investments are scams. Promoters of “prime bank” programs often claim that investors’ funds will be used to buy and trade supposed “prime bank” instruments, and that investors will…


The total amount of money being borrowed or lent; the initial amount of money invested.

Product Description

A summary of key information about an ETF that explains how to obtain a prospectus.


Revenue minus cost; money made on a transaction.

Promissory Notes

Promissory notes are a form of debt that companies sometimes use to raise money. They typically involve investors loaning money to a company in exchange for a fixed amount of periodic income.…


A document that describes the mutual fund to prospective investors. Every mutual fund provides a prospectus with information about the mutual fund's investment objectives, risks, past performance,…

Proving Securities Ownership

Proving securities ownership is easier if you can remember how the security was acquired. Brokerage Firm If you bought the security through a brokerage firm, contact the firm and ask if they have a…

Proxy Statements

A document sent to shareholders letting them know when and where a shareholders’ meeting is taking place and detailing the matters to be voted upon at the meeting.  You can attend the meeting…

Proxy Statements: How to Find

A company is required to file its proxy statements with the SEC no later than the date proxy materials are…

Proxy Voting

A way for shareholders to vote for corporate directors and on other matters affecting the company without having to personally attend the meeting.

Public Company

A company that offers its securities through an offering and now has those securities traded on the open market.

Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB)

The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (also known as the PCAOB) is a private-sector, nonprofit corporation created by the Sarbanes-…

Public Documents

The Public Reference Room (PRR) has reopened to members of the public who wish to review Forms 144 from the last 90 days filed in paper. The PRR is open on Wednesdays from 10am-3:30pm.…

Pump and Dump Schemes

In a pump and dump scheme, fraudsters typically spread false or misleading information to create a buying frenzy that will “pump” up the price of a stock and then “dump” shares of the stock by…

Purchase Fee

A shareholder fee that some funds charge when investors buy mutual fund shares. This is not the same as, and may be in addition to, a front-end load.

Purchasing Power

The amount of goods and services that can be purchased by a given unit of currency, taking into account the effect of inflation.

Pyramid Schemes

A pyramid scheme is an investment fraud in which new participants’ fees are typically used to pay money to existing participants for recruiting new members. Pyramid scheme organizers may pitch the…