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Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)

Real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) allow individuals to invest in large-scale, income-producing real estate. A REIT is a company that owns and typically operates income-producing real estate or related assets. These may include office buildings, shopping malls, apartments, hotels, resorts, self-storage facilities, warehouses, and mortgages or loans. Unlike other real estate companies, a REIT does not develop real estate properties to resell them. Instead, a REIT buys and develops properties primarily to operate them as part of its own investment portfolio.

Real Return

Real return is what is earned on an investment after accounting for taxes and inflation. Real returns are lower than nominal returns, which do not subtract taxes and inflation.

Rebalancing

Rebalancing brings a portfolio back to its original asset allocation mix. This is necessary because over time, some investments will grow faster than others, and holdings may become out of alignment with investment goals.

Recovering Funds

Investors who are victims of securities law violations may be eligible to receive money recovered from fraudsters. Sometimes a successful SEC enforcement action results in recovered funds being distributed to victims.

Processes that may help victims recover money include: fair funds and disgorgement funds; receiverships; brokerage account customer protections; corporate bankruptcy proceedings; and private class action lawsuits.

Redemption Fee

A shareholder fee that some funds charge when investors redeem (sell) mutual fund shares. Redemption fees, which must be paid to the fund, are not the same as and may be in addition to a back-end load, which is typically paid to a broker. The SEC generally limits redemption fees to 2% of the sales amount.

Registered Owner

A registered owner or record holder holds stocks directly with the company, rather than in "street name." Registration Statement -- By law, public companies in the U.S. must disclose important financial information before they issue securities for sale to the public. This report, known as a registration statement, is filed with the SEC.

Registration Statement

A registration statement is a filing with the SEC making required disclosures in connection with the registration of a security, a securities offering or an investment company under federal securities laws.  Registration statements for securities offerings often include a prospectus, which is the disclosure document describing the offering, the securities and the

Regulation A

Under the federal securities laws, any offer or sale of a security must either be registered with the SEC or meet an exemption.  Regulation A is an exemption from the registration requirements, allowing companies to offer and sell their securities without having to register the offering with the SEC. 

Regulation Crowdfunding

Crowdfunding refers to a financing method in which money is raised through soliciting relatively small individual investments or contributions from a large number of people.   

If a company would like to offer and sell securities through crowdfunding, they must comply with the federal securities laws.  Under the federal securities laws, any offer or sale of a security must either be registered with the SEC or meet an exemption. 

Regulation D Offerings

Under the federal securities laws, any offer or sale of a security must either be registered with the SEC or meet an exemption. Regulation D under the Securities Act provides a number of exemptions from the registration requirements, allowing some companies to offer and sell their securities without having to register the offering with the SEC.

Restricted Securities

Restricted securities are securities acquired in an unregistered, private sale from the issuing company or from an affiliate of the issuer. They typically bear a “restrictive” legend clearly stating that you may not resell them in the public marketplace unless the sale is exempt from the SEC’s registration requirements.

Revenue

The total amount of money, or gross income, generated by a company from selling its goods and services. A simple way to think about revenue is it’s the price of a widget multiplied by the number of widgets sold.

Revenue Bond

A municipal bond not backed by the government's taxing power but by revenues from a specific project or source, such as highway tolls or lease fees.

Reverse Stock Splits

When a company completes a reverse stock split, each outstanding share of the company is converted into a fraction of a share.  For example, if a company declares a one for ten reverse stock split, every ten shares that you own will be converted into a single share.  If you owned 10,000 shares of the company before the reverse stock split, you will own a total of 1,000 shares after the reverse stock split. 

Risk

In finance, risk refers to the degree of uncertainty about the rate of return on an asset and the potential harm that could arise when financial returns are not what the investor expected. In general, as investment risks rise, investors seek higher returns to compensate them for taking on such risks.

Risk Tolerance

An investor's ability and willingness to lose some or all of an investment in exchange for greater potential returns.

Robo-Adviser

The term “robo-adviser” generally refers to an automated digital investment advisory program.  In most cases, the robo-adviser collects information regarding your financial goals, investment horizon, income and other assets, and risk tolerance by asking you to complete an online questionnaire.  Based on that information, it creates and manages an investment portfolio for you.

Roth 401(k) Plan

An employer-sponsored Roth 401(k) plan is similar to a traditional plan with one major exception. Contributions by employees are not tax deferred but are made with after-tax dollars. Income earned on the account from interest, dividends, or capital gains, is tax-free.

Rule 504 of Regulation D

Rule 504 of Regulation D provides an exemption from the registration requirements of the federal securities laws for some companies when they offer and sell up to $5,000,000 of their securities in any 12-month period.  Except in limited circumstances, purchasers of securities offered pursuant to Rule 504 receive 

Rule 506 of Regulation D

Rule 506 of Regulation D provides two distinct exemptions from registration for companies when they offer and sell securities. Companies relying on the Rule 506 exemptions can raise an unlimited amount of money.

Rulemaking, How It Works

Rulemaking is the process that federal agencies use to make rules. Some rulemaking implements laws passed by Congress and signed by the President. Other rulemaking updates rules under existing laws or creates new rules within an agency’s existing authority that the agency believes are needed. The process is designed to give members of the public an opportunity to provide their opinions.